echo “hello php”

Very recently I completed my first PHP assignment. While I was working with a client assisting them with a bunch of stuff like requirement gathering, hiring etc I was told about one of their existing project, which was written in PHP and was out-sourced to a vendor. The frequent changes in the requirement and loss of interest by the vendor made their life pretty difficult and wanted me to help out with new functionality that needed to be built. Of-course I readily agreed.

I quickly came up to speed with PHP – the best resource that worked for me was of-course – I kept using it even when I was developing. Their function reference is pretty handy. I initially started coding with Zend Studio only to realize later that it would very soon expire. I switched to PHP IDE which is also an eclipse based IDE (like Zend) but was free. Being familiar with eclipse I was comfortable with both these IDEs.

The project was a web based application & I had to develop a few pages. I must admit problem looked simple initially but gradually as we spent more and more time with the client we realized that it is far more complex. At the end of it, I had ended up using a lot of java script, AJAX, JSON & JQuery all in 2-3 PHP pages.

Once I got comfortable with PHP, I tried my hand at other PHP based open source products like wordpress & joomla. Even tried installing something called sugar-crm. I have already built my blog over wordpress (currently hosted on and am planning to build another website over joomla.

request.getSession (false) always returning a session

Recently I found that request.getSession (false) was *always* returning a session instance even when it is not created earlier by my application. After spending 2-3 hours on it, I figured out the cause. Read on …….

I am working on adding a rather unique jobs functionality for which required an authentication mechanism. For this purpose, I wanted to add a check at various pages to ensure that if a session did not exist a request to these pages would be re-directed to loign page. This was done using the following code

HttpSession session = request.getSession (false);
if (session == null)
// forward request to login page
// return;

However to my surprise this api was always giving me a session instance even when I had not explicitly created one (after the login request). I searched my entire code base & confirmed that I was not creating a session anywhere. Looked up the JavaDoc for this method in class javax.servlet.HttpServletRequest, which clearly stated that if the supplied boolean is false and if the request has no valid HttpSession, this method would return null.

After spending some more time, I realized the problem. Basically if the application is using a JSP, the container (in my case Tomcat 5.5) by default ends up creating a session. In my case, the user’s landing page itself was a JSP as a result the session gets created at that time itself. To avoid this, simply add the following directive at your JSP, which tells the JSP compiler not to use session variable in the compiled class.

< % @page session="false" % >

Note – You will have to get rid of extra spaces between “<“, “%” & “@” symbols.

Have you also had a similar situation and figured out another cause for this? If yes, please share your experience here.

Outlook with Airtel can make current window lose focus while send/receive

I ran into a strange problem recently. Every now & then while working on my Windows XP SP2 laptop, I noticed that the active window would lose focus for 3-5 seconds. This was very annoying as while typing I would miss a few words.

Since this started happening very recently, I prepared a list of things that I had done alt-tab[3]recently. Even tried un-doing a few things, but nothing really worked. Today I happen to discover the source of the problem. At work, for a different reason I increased the frequency of automatic send/receive in my Outlook. I noticed with this; the problem started appearing more frequently. As a matter of fact, it happened every time Outlook did a send/receive. This was a good break-through. I tried un-doing a few things that I had done recently in Outlook settings. For example removed a few recently added rules; disabled send/receive groups and used “All Accounts” group instead. However still nothing worked. I tried searching google and found somebody else had the same problem, but the suggested solution on the forums required messing around with the registry & I wasn’t comfortable with the reasoning provided either so didn’t really try them out.

The next good thing that just happened was that in one of those 3-5 seconds I pressed ALT-TAB & noticed a new window in the preview which shouldn’t have been there. I could identify the logo was for Airtel; my new Internet Service Provider (I had recently shifted from BSNL to Airtel). Along with the router, Airtel guys had installed this program called Airtel NetXpert 2.0 on my machine which I thought was a single point of resolution for all my Airtel related problems (So far I really haven’t got a chance to look at what it really does so not sure if I’m correct here). Next I tried killing this program, which was quietly running in the background but accessible through Notification Area (where you see your clock) & VOILA my problem got resolved.

I guess this NetXpert program is monitoring outgoing & perhaps incoming traffic from my machine (even if I’m not on Airtel network). So when Outlook tries to connect to my mail server somehow this program gets activated which for some reason tries to steal focus from the current window. Though this is just a vague guess theory & there are still a quite few open ends here, but I guess I’ll leave this here.

If you faced this problem too, do let me know by adding a comment here.

Salesforce Native Functionality

Now that you understand what salesforce is, it is time to dive in. This article (second in salesforce series) talks about how to customize/extend salesforce platform using its native functionality that does not requiring any coding.

An organization account in salesforce at the root level comprises of various data objects. While the platform comes ready with some pre-built objects (like Account, Contact etc), it also allows its users to define new ones. This process of creating a new Custom Object is similar to that of creating a table in a database where the definition of the object is captured & requires special privileges. Salesforce provides simple web based UI tools to administrators that allow them to define an object & add attributes to it through a UI wizard. The following section talk about various concepts that are involved related to salesforce objects.

Custom Fields : Once an object is defined, it is not of much use till you add “Fields” to it. These fields are elements that would be required to be filled with data with every record of the custom object. You might want to think of these as columns of a database table. These fields could be of different types like numbers (integers as well as floating), text, date, Boolean, currency, lists etc. While defining the object, one is required to specify the “record name” – a field that would uniquely identify a record. This field of type Text or auto-generated number can be thought of as the “primary key” for the object.

Constraints :  Once an attribute has been defined, the platform allows adding simple constraints on them. A constraint comes handy when you want to impose restrictions on the possible values that an attribute can contain. For example if an attribute represents a percentage value, you would want to impose a constraint that it can be between zero and hundred. You also define an error message that is displayed if the constraint is violated.

Dependent Fields : Fields can also be marked dependent on one another. For example if you have a drop down (or pick-list) that stores a list of countries and another drop down that stores a list of cities; it is possible to show only cities of the selected country by marking the “city” drop down dependent on the “country” drop down.

Relationships : When adding an attribute, one can also set up a relation between objects. For example – When defining a “Student” object, it might have an attribute called “School” for example which might have its own set of attributes. These fields are known as “lookup” fields. You might want to think of this as a “foreign-key” relationship.

Triggers : Another interesting feature that can be used for manipulating custom-objects is triggers. These are call back methods that are executed by salesforce platform when data is inserted, updated or deleted. The logic to be executed is written in Apex (to be discussed later).

Security : When creating an attribute, security is also defined for that attribute. This essentially involves who all have permissions to view/modify/delete data in the field. More on security later.


sf-tab[8] Once a custom object has been defined along with the associated relationships, dependencies & constraints one can add that object to a new “Tab”. A tab is a UI element that provides visibility for the object to a user.  A tab can show a list of instances/records of a particular object; clicking each item in the list provides more details (Fields of the record) which can be edited if desired (assuming edit permissions are granted). A tab also provides buttons that allow a user to do standard operations like “New” which presents a user with a form that takes input for all the attributes defined. One can also create custom buttons to do custom actions – For example you might want to have a custom button that modifies an attribute of multiple instances in one shot (this would require Apex programming though which I’ll talk about in later sections).

Page Layouts

As mentioned above a Tab associated with a custom object provides information about instances of that object. All UI related aspects of this object are decided by the Page Layout. One can define different layouts and associate them to different roles (therefore controlling the amount of information visible to any role). A Page Layout manager is the place where one defines what all fields would be shown & in what order. This also allows a user to select the buttons that are to be shown.

Note – This post only introduces various concepts as used by salesforce & is by no means complete. If you like to read further, here is an excellent document that should help you – This points to a document titled : Creating On Demand Apps and is an excellent read. You would need to signup (free) as a developer to download this.

If you have any questions, please feel free to post the same in comments section and I would try to help as much as possible.

What is salesforce?

As an introductory post of the salesforce series this article intends to start from the basic question outlined by the heading of this article – What is salesforce?

Salesforce is an on-demand, web based platform that allow people to develop & host custom applications. (that’s what salesforce calls its platform) allows developers to build and deliver any application without any other software (other than a web browser). There is no need of a database, no need for any SDK to be installed on the local machine. The application once developed is available for access online immediately – therefore eliminating any need of hosting software servers & hardware. Read more about Platform As a Service nature of Salesforce here.

Salesforce also provides CRM solutions off-the-shelf to its customers that require zero development. These applications are ready to use and are extremely popular. These CRM applications are easy to customize through drag and drop click tools and therefore can be used with equal ease by small as well as huge organizations. A lot of organizations world wide have trusted salesforce for managing their sales & customer data for improved customer service, partner management and better visibility into sales pipelines.

Salesforce also provides an on-line marketplace called Appexchange; where people can buy/sell & deploy ready to use pre-built salesforce applications that can run on platform. This allows companies and individual developers to build applications that they can sell to prospective customers. also manages & encourages a huge developer community at [DFC] which allows various tools to help developers build their applications.

Salesforce Tutorial

With this post I intend to start a series, where I would talk about – salesforce unique on-demand application development and hosting platform.

I got introduced to salesforce around last week of January 2008 and was assigned a task to implement a CRM application that could talk to a website’s existing proprietary system. The first problem that I faced at the time of learning was the plethora of terms that were being used all over the place at salesforce website. There is good documentation available in chunks and pieces but it takes time to reach the right document. Once I figured out some terms and where to look for help, things became easier. I would attempt to demystify some of these terms through my upcoming posts.

The journey that I undertook in developing the application forced me to quickly discover features that offers. Unfortunately I made initial mistakes in choosing the right components/features to build my application. These mistakes could have been avoided had I been better educated about the platform features. Some of these upcoming posts would help readers avoid making these mistakes. After going live a couple of weeks ago, I also discovered some inherent strengths and weakness of the platform. This knowledge too I feel would be useful for many others.

I would aim to complete this series of posts in a week or two; therefore would target publishing one post in 2-3 days. I would be categorizing all these posts under the Category “salesforce“.

Send/Receive SMS using Java

In the last couple of months for some reason or the other I have faced a requirement to send/receive SMS for the applications that I have been working on. This post talks about how I achieved the same.

There are plenty of SMS vendors that provide simple APIs (typically HTTP based) that allow one to send an SMS. Once you register with any vendor (typically after paying), then all it takes to send an SMS is to invoke a URL programmatically. I have been using for my last project and have been pretty happy with their service. The service gives me 500 credits (500 SMS) for Rs 300/- (60 paisa an SMS – which I’m okay to spend). To know more about the API format, visit their website and click on Developer API Link.

If for any reason, you don’t like this option; There are other ways of sending an SMS. I had earlier written a simple application that could interact with a handset connected with the computer over serial cable through AT Commands and instruct it to send an SMS. It could also read the inbox in similar manner. Other options include professional services that provide interface with an SMSC over simpler APIs. Check out this product from Simple Wire. Though I haven’t really used it, but it looks fairly neat.

I’m pretty sure there are plenty of other options that exist and might probably be better for one reason or the other. If you know of some, please feel free to add a comment.

To receive an SMS, you would need to set up a short-code. There are plenty of vendors that allow one to do this. Searching Google with keywords like “SMS Shortcode India” for example will expose you a list of vendors. Once you get a short code registered for yourself (again by paying some amount), for a particular keyword, your vendor would allow you to configure handling of this keyword. If your application requirements are static in nature, it will provide tools to send you notifications (email or sms) on every sms that comes to your short-code. If your needs are dynamic, then you can set up the key-word so that it hits a URL (of your application) passing on the incoming sms along with the sender’s mobile number and whatever you return (in plain text) is sent back to the sender.


Last couple of weeks, besides developing a salesforce application for one of my clients, I was also involved in building a new website – along with a couple of friends. Yesterday night (9th May’ 08) at around 10pm IST we moved the site from staging to live environment on our servers. Do have a look at the site and let me know your views.


Through, we intend to be bring various Services to our customers offering them un-paralleled customer service. To start-off we are doing a pilot in Gurgaon with Real Estate sector where we intend to reduce the pain involved in searching for an apartment at a negative cost to the end customer (we are offering cash back) . The way it works is pictorially described in the image below (click to expand).

We are also offering free APPLE IPODs for referrals. So if you know people who are looking out for an apartment in NCR region, do refer your friends here – if we are successful in helping out your friend, you will win a free IPOD shuffle delivered directly to your home.

The team is raring to go and our road map includes launching other services soon. If you wish to stay updated on the happenings, you might want to add to your Feed Reader.

Google Apps from within Salesforce

Very recently Google and Salesforce tied up to make Google Apps accessible to SF users. Here are more details about the story on Tech Crunch.

Since, I’m right now involved in building an application over Salesforce’s platform, I was kind of excited and was waiting for google apps to be made available. To my surprise I saw links for “Google Apps” showing up in my SF account. The speed with which this came out was pretty cool.

Check-out the video below to know more on how the two work together.

Adding a WYSIWYG Editor on a HTML Text Area

One of the applications that I’m currently working on required me to write a small Java program that allowed users to send email from a web page. [Yeah – Nothing so great about it but sending emails is not what this post is about]. The page allowed user with basic email facilities and also supported Email Attachments (Thanks to Apache commons File upload). It allowed users to compose text emails through a regular HTML Text Area.

On Completing the application, one of the first enhancement that came my way was to enable rich text & spell checker in the body of the email. This initially looked quite a challenge to me as I had no clue how to go about building this. However After spending some time with my dear friend – Google, I found a couple of Tools that could help me out. I ended up using FCKEditor, which enabled writing/editing rich text through Java Script.

The product was not very costly (license details can be found here) & was fairly easy to set up. After a couple of hours, I managed to set it up properly and the HTML text area in my form got modified to that shown below (click to en-large). Notice the tool bar on top of the email body text area. One of the greatest feature of this editor was that it supported copy/paste from MS Office applications (Word, Outlook) without breaking down the formatting.

The reset of this post provides brief instructions on how to set this up. For more details, please refer to their online documentation here.

1) Download FCK Editor from here [I used version 2.6].

2) Unzip the downloaded compressed file into your web-app directory. With Tomcat for example, the un-compressed folder (fckeditor by default) should be placed into %TOMCAT_HOME%\webapps\%YOUR_WEBAPP_NAME% directory.

3) Point your web browser to the following linke in order to test the installation. If correctly installed you would see a text area with a tool bar similar to the one shown above.


4) Add the following lines to your web page in the section

window.onload = function()


var oFCKeditor = new FCKeditor( ‘my_text_area’, ‘90%’, ‘400’, ‘Default’, ” ) ;

oFCKeditor.BasePath = “fckeditor/” ;

oFCKeditor.ReplaceTextarea() ;


window.onload = function()


var oFCKeditor = new FCKeditor( ‘my_text_area’, ‘90%’, ‘400’, ‘Default’, ” ) ;

oFCKeditor.BasePath = “fckeditor/” ;

oFCKeditor.ReplaceTextarea() ;



1. This example adds rich text toolbar to a text area with the name ‘my_text_area’. You might want to replace this with the actual name that is being used in your HTML form.

2. The Base Path refers to the directory where the editor is installed. It defaults to fckeditor which is the default directory in which fckeditor is unzipped.

3. For more details, please refer online documentation here.